Department of The Interior
Washington,D.C. Nov,6,1901.

Robert L. de Moura,
Care, Munn & Co.,
Washington D.C.

Please find below a communication from de EXAMINER in charge of you application.
filed Oct.4,1901, Ser. No. 77.576, for Wireless Telephones an Telegraphs.

Commissioner of Patents,

 That sound waves traverse the path of what applicant terms actinic rays in preference to any other paths through the air is denied. The propagation of sound through air dependes upon the density and elasticity of the same and how the actinic rays operate in any way to change these factors is not seen.

That Hertzian waves traverse a ray or pencil of actinic rays in preference to other directions through the ether is also not apparent. It is known that such actinic, or what is commonly called ultra violet rays, do operate in the direction of incresing the conductivity of gases but how such increase in conductivity is...of advantage in the transmission of Hertzian waes is no apparently.

A general objection of inoperativeness is made to the applicant  whole system. How the sound waves affect the actinic rays or vice-versa, in his transmitter, is not understood. And further, how the cathode rays operate in enhancing the propagation of Hertzian waves is not uderstood. Furthermore, the disposition of the metallic wires 34 and 35 is not such as to give satisfactory radiation of Hertzian waves. The radiation is at right angles to axis of the wires and in consequence such wires ought to be shown transverse to the axis of the reflector rather than parallel with the same.

The description of the Hertzian portion of the system at the left of figure is not sufficient. The circuits should be decribed in detail. To overcome the abover objections of inoperativeness and points not understood applicant shluld file affidavits disclosing the precise means used in determining the various features he says he has discovered, giving detailed information as to distances covered general dimensions of apparatus and quantitative measurements mad from such experiments, all this being necessary for a sufficiently clear understanding of the case.

Attention is called to the fact that the claims cover at least two separate and independent inventions, one in wireless telephony and the other the wireless telegraph system.

The following patents are cited, however, after a curscry examination as showing the state of the art;
341,213, May 4, 1886, Bell et al.
680,614, Aug.13,1901 Poliakoff
                                              Telephony, Radiophones;
and Vol.80, No. 21 of the Scientific America, May 27, 1899, "Radiophones".

Examiner,Div 16



My invention consists of an apparatus that works without wires as conductors and has the property of concentrating, reinforcing electric and luminous sound waves, for the principal purposes of 1st. sending and receiving the natural voice throuch space by means of sound waves. 2nd. telephoning also through space by means of the principle of photophone,
and 3rd.sending and receiving phonetic, graphic and harmonic signs, through space, water and the earth by means of electric waves.

The apparatus takes different names according to the effect produced. In the first instance is is called "The Esophone", in the second "The Photophone",and in the third "The Radiographone". The working distance of the first is at least 4 or 5 miles; of the second from 5 to 7 miles and of the third from 10 to 15 miles.

These potentialities of sending and receiving can be increased in the first case by augmenting the proportions of certain parts; in the second case by communicating greater intensity to the luminous focuses, and in the third case by using a more powerful Ruhmkorff coil.

In the Esophone I use the pieces in Table I, as numbered there.
No.1 is a truncated hollow pyramid entirely of glass when the cover is of glass, and of wood when the cover is a metal one.
No.2 is a square wooden box open at both ends.
No.3 is a square wooden frame of 4 or 5 centimetres thickness and larger by several millimetres than No.2.
No.4 represents two metal tubes each one having at the extremity a metal dis into which it screws.
No.5 is a metal coonection having 3 hollow arms and one solid arm.
No.6 is a metal funnel.
No.7 is a metal connection having the appearance of an inverted Y.
No.8 is a flexible tube.
No.9 is a speaking tube which divides at one end into two other tubes having mouth pieces.
No.10 is a metal cylindrical box convex at one end and at the other end terminating like a funnel, having in the inside an electrical ventilator of great velocity.
No.11 is a metal cylinder convex at one end and having a connecting thread, and open at the other end; on the outside are two binding postsp.
No.12 are two concave reflectors of glass or metal, one larger than the other.
No.13 is a cathodic lamp which in certain cases may be substituted by an incandescent electric lamp.
No.14 are two small metal tubes each one having at one end binding posts.
No.15 is a light wooden square box, metal lined, having holes in the sides and in the rear to ventilate, and fits into No.2; this box may be substituted by a search light, or any other projector of light.
No.16 are two blue glass discs, one larger than the other, with or without a littele hole in centre of the diameter of reflectors No.12. These discs may also be a blue and white concentric zones.
No.17 is a Voltaic ar light.
No.18 is a gridiron having a circular opening in centre to allow No.11 to enter.
No.19 is a telescope
No.20 is a compass.
No.21 is a level.
No.22 is a tripod.
These 22 pieces are disposed in the following manner:
The mouth of No.1 approaches the mouth of No.2 but the one does not touch the other, and they are held in this position by four screws.
No.3 fits tightly around the mouth of No.2, passing the mouth by a few millimetres.
No.4 are connected to the perpendicular arms of No.5.
No.6 connects with the horizontal arm of No.5, opposite to the solid arm.
These pieces are placed in a perpendicular psition inside and about the middle of no.2. The extremities of the perpendicular arms pass through the upper and lower sides of the box No.2 and are hel in position by the two discs which are screwed into the sides of No.2.
The long arm of No.7 is connected to the lower perpendicular arm above described.
No.8 makes connection with one of the short arms of No.7 and No.9 makes connection with the other short arm of No.7.
No.10 makes connection at its conical end with No.8.
No.11 makes connection with the solid arm of No.5.
The smaller reflector of No.12 is placed inside No.11, at the concave end.
No.13 is placed into No.11 and in front of the reflector, at proper focus distance, and held in position by No.14, the screw heads of which are seen outside the box.
Inside of No.15 is the larger reflector of No.12 at the extreme end and in front of it is No.17, and in the front of the Voltaic arc light is placed No.16.
No.15, as we have described before, embraces No.2, prolonging itself almost to the middle of No.2 and is held in position by screws.
No.18 is placed inside of and near the mouth of No.2.
Nos.19, 20 and 21 are placed either on top or on the sides of No.2.

The apparatus so disposed is placed on top of No.22, and the table of No.22 has openings to allow parts to pass through. This apparatus accomplishes the first purpose, described on page 1 of these notes, that is, to transmit and receive the natural voice through space by means of sound waves,with this provision that when it is used as a receiver the electric ventilator (No.10,page 2) is not used.

The different parts of the apparatus, as described under the various numbers, may be changed as regards the material of their composition, their shapes and the disposition of colors, as well as the proportionate dimensions.

The machines are syncronised by means of the compass or the telescope; then the luminous focuses and the ventilator are put in action, and by means of the speaking tube (No.9,page2) you transmit and received the natural voice.

The signal for calling is given by an electric bell which works without wires by means of electric waves, as we will see when speaking of the Radiographone.

In the PHOTOPHONE, I use the pieces in Table 11 as numbered there. No.1 is a hollow metal vacuum hemisphere, closed hermetically by a disc of transparent glass and has inside a diaphragm of SELENIC SALT which communicates electrically with a telephone, No.2, with an induction coil, No.5, wich are in the same circuit.
No.4 is an interrupter placed in the same circuit of the lamp No.13.

No.1 goes into cylinder No.11. No.11 is described on page 3 of this account., with the glass part turnede toward the mouth of the cylinder and is held in position by an arm behind.

The PHOTOPHONE is the same instrument as the Esophone except that the ventilator is not used and has in addition to the parts described in the Esophone the three piesces above noted.

The machines having been synchronized as above the Voltaic Arc Light in No.15 of Table 1 is put in action, and the signal for calling is given by an electric bell which works without wires by means of electric waves or by vibrations of intermittent light produced by the interrupter. As soon as a person is at the other end, ready to talk, you put No.13 in continous action.

The vibrations produced by the voice striking against the cover of No.1 (page 2) are communicated to the local luminous columns produced by Nos. 13 and 17; and by means of these luminous columns these same vibrations, propagated to the other machine, modify the resistance of the diaphragm of selenic salt in the receiving machine, reproducing in its telephone the vibrations corresponding to the sounds produced by the voice in the first machine, so that the potentiality of propagation is in direct proportion to the intensity of the two luminous focuses of th two stations that are in action.

In the RADIOGRAPHONE, I use the pieces in Table 11 as numbered there. No.5 is a wide flat metal ring, similar to the hoop on a barrel, which has wires running across the circumference and horizontal to it and these wires are parallel to one another.
This piece which may be changed both as regards its form and the disposition of the wires, communicates electrically with the exciter or the producer of the electric waves and constitutes the transmittent antenna, as the gridiron (No.18,page 3) constitutes the receiving antenna.

The ring is placed around the lamp No.13 (page 3).
To get the results from the Radiographone we use the same arrangement that we have used relatively to the production of the luminous focuses and besides the pieces represented in Figure 1, destined for phonetic, harmonic and graphic telegraphty already described in the first explanation sent bearing an mind that the Esophone or the Photophone and phonetically.

For telegraphy, strictly speaking, there exists in "K" Figure 1, a wave receiver, most complete and perfect, with a relay, induction coil and shunt to the which is connected a Morse receiver.
This wave receiver is in direct connection with the receiver antenna.
Having placed in activity the producers of the luminous focuses, cojointly with the electric waves intermittent darts of luminous athenic or cathodic rays are sent from the extremity of No.11 by means of Morse Keys, telegraphing by this means phonetically, graphically or harmonically with the pieces represented in Figure 1.

Utility and Advantages of the Apparatus
This apparatus with its different applications is able to establish at a distance and without wires mutual connections.
Using the same path or propagation you can, at the same time, telegraph and telephone to the oter end.
When the wind is contrary or the distances impede the effects of the Esophone, we can use the Photophone, and when tempests or distances do not favor the working of the Photophone, we can use de Radiographone.

Speaking of the Esophone, when the distance is two miles or more, the Esophone Will transmit the human voice so that all those who are sithin the perimetre of its sphere of action will be able to hear the voice without having receivers at their ends, just as you can hear the voice of a person talking across a room.

This apparatus has the property, as we have said before, of concentrating, reinforcing and canalizing sound electric an luminous waves, by this means facilitating and increasing the power of these sound, electric and luminous waves, always in the same direct line of action.

The sound, electric and luminous waves are concentrated by the action of the reflectors. These waves are reinforced by the arrangement of the apparatus and by the reflex action, regular or irregular, bearing in mind that the sonorous waves are doubly reinforced, that is, not only by the arrangement of the apparatus and the reflex action bu also by the speaking tube and the air current which goes out with the voice.

These waves are also canalized, the sound an luminous waves by the sides of the aparatus and gridiron, and by the light rays, as we will see later on,.

The electric waves not only by the sides of the central cylinder but also by the external luminous column, the which electric waves starting from the inside of the cylinder pass through the centre of the luminous column, the which lumimnous column helds the same direction as these electric waves.

Finally, responding in particular to the questions which have been presented to me, I beg to say that the luminous, actinic or cathodic rays are not used with the design changing the natural path which the sound and electric waves take through space but of facilitating the power of propagation of the sound and electric waves through the natural path; because these luminous, actinic or cathodic rays vibrate with greater velocity than the sound and electric waves and, vibratring in the same direction of the sound an electric waves and at the same time with them, put into action the air or ether mass which is ahead or before them and open the way for the passage of the sound or electric waves an by this fact, not directly but indirectly, augent the power of propagation of the sound and electric waves, as I have observed and proved by innumeral experiments ranging over a period of four years.

The arrangement of the transmittent antenna: The wires are bent and meet each other point for point perpendicularly to the axis of the reflector and are placed in focal distance to the reflector. With regard to telegraphy and arrangement of the wires described in Figure 1, I beg to repeat that the arrangement of the connections is intend to work the Esophone and Photophone, phonetically or harmonically.

To telegraph, in particular, there exists in "K" Figure 1, a complete wave receiver with its competent Morse receiver and communicates directly with the antenna receiver and inside two dry cells.
When it is in action you place the key No.75 at the neutral point which is shown by the point at end of wire No.99. 99 makes connection with wire No.97, and with the key No.74 you can close the circuit.

Then all the pieces intended for the phonetic and harmonic tleegraph and for ringint the electric bell are out of action of the electric waves and leave only the wave receiver in "K"to act. The wave receivers and the exciters, are inside a metal box. The darts of the luminous, actinic or cathodic rays are sent conjointly with the electric waves ( as described above) by means of the key No.60. and key No.62 remains in the position indicated in Figure No.1.

Then the balls 57 of simple resistance become automatic interrupters. The interruptions made on 66 are in correspondence with the interruptions of 60. I make use of the incandescent lamp and of the glass disc with concentric zones and with a hole in centre, the wich disc is inside the metal cylinder near the mouth of the cylinder, when I workd the Esophone without a receiver at the other end, as we have explained above; and luminous rays.

From what we have said it is easy to appreciate that this apparatus differs very much from other similar instruments, not only in regard to its genral and particular make up but also in regard to its component parts and also in regard to the new an original effects produced.

It is true that in my claims pieces are represented for telegraphing and telephoning without wires, but it is also true that the unioun of these pieces constitute the integral object to which my apparatus is destined, that is, to send or receive the natural voice etc.. as on page 1 described.
Nevertheless, obedient to your instructions, I Divide my  invention into two applications, one destined for Wireles Esophonic and Photofonic Telephone,and the other destined for Wireless graphic and harmonic telegraph.

I use the application already made as an application for a Wireless Esophonic an Photophonic telephone and at once I shall make application for my system of Wireless graphic an harmonic telegraph, because as I have to separate this part from the first, I shall be compelled to modify the designs.


Em resposta o Departamento de Patentes enviou a seguinte correspondência.

Department of The Interior
Washington,D.C. March 14, 1902

Robert L. de Moura,
Care, Munn & Co.,
Washington D.C.

Please find below a communication from de EXAMINER in charge of you application.
filed Oct.4,1901, Ser. No. 77.576, for Wireless Telephones an Telegraphs.

Commissioner of Patents,

The amendment of Dec.26, 1901, and argument of Jan.17,1902, have been received.
Action on this case is suspended until the demonstration which the attorney states the inventor is oom to make. However, even should this demonstration prove successfull aplicant is advised that certain parts of the specification to which objection was previously raised must be revised because they are contrary to the generally accepted theory and demonstration of operativeness will not obviate said objections. Attention is called to the fact that ultra violet light is absorbed by glass and will not pass through the same.
Claims 1 and 2 are believed to be too broad in view of the Scientific American publication of record.
The other claims await for their allowance upon proof of operativeness.

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